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Video technology was first developed for cathode ray tube (CRT) television systems, but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented. Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing the first practical video tape recorder (VTR). In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the camera's electrical impulses and saving the information onto magnetic video tape. This tape was sold for around $50,000 in 1956. Sony began selling videocassette recorder (VCR) tapes to the public in 1971. Later advances in computer technology have allowed computers to capture, store, edit and transmit video clips. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of video tape and tape equipment plummeted. Description of video Analog video standards worldwide NTSC PAL or switching to PAL SECAM No information The term video ("video" meaning "I see", from the Latin verb "videre") commonly refers to several storage formats for moving pictures: digital video formats, including Blu-ray Disc, DVD, QuickTime (QT), and MPEG-4; and analog videotapes, including VHS and Betamax. Video can be recorded and transmitted in various physical media: in magnetic tape when recorded as PAL or NTSC electric signals by video cameras, or in MPEG-4 or DV digital media when recorded by digital cameras. Quality of video essentially depends on the capturing method and storage used. Digital television (DTV) is a relatively recent format with higher quality than earlier television formats and has become a standard for television video. (See List of digital television deployments by country.) 3D-video, digital video in three dimensions, premiered at the end of 20th century. Six or eight cameras with realtime depth measurement are typically used to capture 3D-video streams. The format of 3D-video is fixed in MPEG-4 Part 16 Animation Framework eXtension (AFX). In many countries, the term video is often used informally to refer to both Videocassette recorders and video cassettes; the meaning is normally clear from the context.  Characteristics of video streams Number of frames per second Frame rate, the number of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second (frame/s) for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras. PAL (Europe, Asia, Australia, etc.) and SECAM (France, Russia, parts of Africa etc.) standards specify 25 frame/s, while NTSC (USA, Canada, Japan, etc.) specifies 29.97 frame/s. Film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24photograms/s, which complicates slightly the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video. The minimum frame rate to achieve the illusion of a moving image is about fifteen frames per second. Interlacing Video can be interlaced or progressive. Interlacing was invented as a way to achieve good visual quality within the limitations of a narrow bandwidth. The horizontal scan lines of each interlaced frame are numbered consecutively and partitioned into two fields: the odd field (upper field) consisting of the odd-numbered lines and the even field (lower field) consisting of the even-numbered lines. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats. Abbreviated video resolution specifications often include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is often specified as 576i50, where 576 indicates the vertical line resolution, i indicates interlacing, and 50 indicates 50 fields (half-frames) per second. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all of the scan lines. The result is a higher spatial resolution and a lack of various artifacts that can make parts of a stationary picture appear to be moving or flashing. A procedure known as deinterlacing can be used for converting an interlaced stream, such as analog, DVD, or satellite, to be processed by progressive scan devices, such as Liquid crystal display television TFT LCD Television sets, projectors, and plasma panels. Deinterlacing cannot, however, produce a video quality that is equivalent to true progressive scan source material.  Display resolution Main article: Display resolution Common computer and TV display resolutions. The size of a video image is measured in pixels for digital video, or horizontal scan lines and vertical lines of resolution for analog video. In the digital domain (e.g. DVD) standard-definition television (SDTV) is specified as 720/704/640×480i60 for NTSC and 768/720×576i50 for PAL or SECAM resolution. However in the analog domain, the number of visible scanlines remains constant (486 NTSC/576 PAL) while the horizontal measurement varies with the quality of the signal: approximately 320 pixels per scanline for VCR quality, 400 pixels for TV broadcasts, and 720 pixels for DVD sources. Aspect ratio is preserved because of non-square "pixels". New high-definition televisions (HDTV) are capable of resolutions up to 1920×1080p60, i.e. 1920 pixels per scan line by 1080 scan lines, progressive, at 60 frames per second. Video resolution for 3D-video is measured in voxels (volume picture element, representing a value in three dimensional space). For example 512×512×512 voxels resolution, now used for simple 3D-video, can be displayed even on some PDAs. Aspect ratio Comparison of common cinematography and traditional television (green) aspect ratios. Aspect ratio describes the dimensions of video screens and video picture elements. All popular video formats are rectilinear, and so can be described by a ratio between width and height. The screen aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4:3, or about 1.33:1. High definition televisions use an aspect ratio of 16:9, or about 1.78:1. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack (also known as the Academy ratio) is 1.375:1. Ratios where the height is taller than the width are uncommon in general everyday use, but do have application in computer systems where the screen may be better suited for a vertical layout. The most common tall aspect ratio of 3:4 is referred to as portrait mode and is created by physically rotating the display device 90 degrees from the normal position. Other tall aspect ratios such as 9:16 are technically possible but rarely used. (For a more detailed discussion of this topic please refer to the page orientation article.) Pixels on computer monitors are usually square, but pixels used in digital video often have non-square aspect ratios, such as those used in the PAL and NTSC variants of the CCIR 601 digital video standard, and the corresponding anamorphic widescreen formats. Therefore, an NTSC DV image which is 720 pixels by 480 pixels is displayed with the aspect ratio of 4:3 (which is the traditional television standard) if the pixels are thin and displayed with the aspect ratio of 16:9 (which is the anamorphic widescreen format) if the pixels are fat. Color space and bits per pixel Example of U-V color plane, Y value=0.5 Color model name describes the video color representation. YIQ was used in NTSC television. It corresponds closely to the YUV scheme used in NTSC and PAL television and the YDbDr scheme used by SECAM television. The number of distinct colors that can be represented by a pixel depends on the number of bits per pixel (bpp). A common way to reduce the number of bits per pixel in digital video is by chroma subsampling (e.g. 4:4:4, 4:2:2, 4:2:0/4:1:1). Video quality Video quality can be measured with formal metrics like PSNR or with subjective video quality using expert observation. The subjective video quality of a video processing system may be evaluated as follows: Choose the video sequences (the SRC) to use for testing. Choose the settings of the system to evaluate (the HRC). Choose a test method for how to present video sequences to experts and to collect their ratings. Invite a sufficient number of experts, preferably not fewer than 15. Carry out testing. Calculate the average marks for each HRC based on the experts' ratings. Many subjective video quality methods are described in the ITU-T recommendation BT.500. One of the standardized method is the Double Stimulus Impairment Scale (DSIS). In DSIS, each expert views an unimpaired reference video followed by an impaired version of the same video. The expert then rates the impaired video using a scale ranging from "impairments are imperceptible" to "impairments are very annoying".  Video compression method (digital only) Main article: Video compression A wide variety of methods are used to compress video streams. Video data contains spatial and temporal redundancy, making uncompressed video streams extremely inefficient. Broadly speaking, spatial redundancy is reduced by registering differences between parts of a single frame; this task is known as intraframe compression and is closely related to image compression. Likewise, temporal redundancy can be reduced by registering differences between frames; this task is known as interframe compression, including motion compensation and other techniques. The most common modern standards are MPEG-2, used for DVD, Blu-ray and satellite television, and MPEG-4, used for AVCHD, Mobile phones (3GP) and Internet. Bit rate (digital only) Bit rate is a measure of the rate of information content in a video stream. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s or bps) unit or Megabits per second (Mbit/s). A higher bit rate allows better video quality. For example VideoCD, with a bit rate of about 1 Mbit/s, is lower quality than DVD, with maximum bit rate of 10.08 Mbit/s for video. HD (High Definition Digital Video and TV) has a still higher quality, with a bit rate of about 20 Mbit/s. Variable bit rate (VBR) is a strategy to maximize the visual video quality and minimize the bit rate. On fast motion scenes, a variable bit rate uses more bits than it does on slow motion scenes of similar duration yet achieves a consistent visual quality. For real-time and non-buffered video streaming when the available bandwidth is fixed, e.g. in videoconferencing delivered on channels of fixed bandwidth, a constant bit rate (CBR) must be used. Stereoscopic Stereoscopic video can be created using several different methods: two channels — a right channel for the right eye and a left channel for the left eye. Both channels may be viewed simultaneously by using light-polarizing filters 90 degrees off-axis from each other on two video projectors. These separately polarized channels are viewed wearing eyeglasses with matching polarization filters. one channel with two overlaid color coded layers. This left and right layer technique is occasionally used for network broadcast, or recent "anaglyph" releases of 3D movies on DVD. Simple Red/Cyan plastic glasses provide the means to view the images discretely to form a stereoscopic view of the content. One channel with alternating left/right frames for each eye, using LCD shutter glasses which read the frame sync from the VGA Display Data Channel to alternately cover each eye, so the appropriate eye sees the correct frame. This method is most common in computer virtual reality applications such as in a Cave Automatic Virtual Environment, but reduces the effective video framerate to one-half of normal (for example, from 120 Hz to 60 Hz). Blu-ray Discs greatly improve the sharpness and detail of the two-color 3D effect in color coded stereo programs. See articles Stereoscopy and 3-D film. Video formats There are different layers of video transmission and storage, each with its own set of formats to choose from. For transmission, there is a physical connector and signal protocol ("video connection standard" below). A given physical link can carry certain "display standards" which specify a particular refresh rate, display resolution, and color space. Many analog and digital recording formats are in use, and digital video clips can also be stored on a computer file system as files which have their own formats. In addition to the physical format used by the data storage device or transmission medium, the stream of ones and zeros that is sent must be in a particular digital "video encoding", of which a number are available. Video connectors, cables, and signal standards See List of video connectors for information about physical connectors and related signal standards. Video display standards Further information: Display technology  Digital television Further information: Broadcast television systems New formats for digital television broadcasts use the MPEG-2 video codec and include:
ATSC - USA, Canada, Korea Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) - Europe ISDB - Japan ISDB-Tb - Uses the MPEG-4 video codec. Brazil, Peru Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB) - Korea Analog television Further information: Broadcast television systems Analog television broadcast standards include: FCS - USA, Russia; obsolete MAC - Europe; obsolete MUSE - Japan NTSC - USA, Canada, Japan PAL - Europe, Asia, Oceania PAL-M - PAL variation. Brazil PALplus - PAL extension, Europe RS-343 (military) SECAM - France, Former Soviet Union, Central Africa An analog video format consists of more information than the visible content of the frame. Preceding and following the image are lines and pixels containing synchronization information or a time delay. This surrounding margin is known as a blanking interval or blanking region; the horizontal and vertical front porch and back porch are the building blocks of the blanking interval. Many countries are planning a digital switchover soon. Computer displays See Computer display standard for a list of standards used for computer monitors and comparison with those used for television. Recording formats before video tape Phonovision Kinescope Analog tape formats 1" Type B video tape (Robert Bosch GmbH]) 1" Type C videotape (Ampex and Sony) 2" Quadruplex videotape (Ampex) Betacam (Sony) Betacam SP (Sony) Betamax (Sony) S-VHS (JVC) (1987) W-VHS (JVC) (1994) U-matic 3/4" (Sony) VCR, VCR-LP, SVR VERA (BBC experimental format ca. 1958) VHS (JVC) VHS-C (JVC) Video 2000 (Philips) (See List of video recording formats.) Digital tape formats Betacam IMX (Sony) D-VHS (JVC) D-Theater D1 (Sony) D2 (Sony) D3 D5 HD Digital-S D9 (JVC) Digital Betacam (Sony) Digital8 (Sony) DV HDV ProHD (JVC) MicroMV MiniDV Optical disc storage formats Blu-ray Disc (Sony) China Blue High-definition Disc (CBHD) DVD (was Super Density Disc, DVD Forum) Professional Disc Universal Media Disc (UMD) (Sony) Discontinued Enhanced Versatile Disc (EVD, Chinese government-sponsored) HD DVD (NEC and Toshiba) HD-VMD Laserdisc (old, MCA and Philips) Digital encoding formats CCIR 601 (ITU-T) H.261 (ITU-T) H.263 (ITU-T) H.264/MPEG-4 AVC (ITU-T + ISO) M-JPEG (ISO) MPEG-1 (ISO) MPEG-2 (ITU-T + ISO) MPEG-4 (ISO) Ogg-Theora VC-1 (SMPTE) See also: Video codec and list of codecs Standards System M System B v · d · eVideo storage formats Display devices Display devices for showing videos are generally full-area (rather than segmented display), sometimes simply called video displays. See also Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Video General Audio List of video topics Video clips Video editing Video format Analog television Cable television Color space Digital television Digital video Film formats Interlaced Progressive scan Satellite television Telecine Television Timecode Video codec Video usage Closed-circuit television Fulldome video Optical feedback Video art Interactive video Video production Video projector Video synthesizer Video teleconference
An S-Video signal is generally connected using a cable with four-pin mini-DIN connectors. Apart from the impedance requirement, these cables are equivalent to regular mini-DIN cables (like Apple's ADB). Apple-type cables can be used for S-Video transfer if no other cable is available, but picture quality may not be as good. Due to the wide use of S-Video connections for DVD players, S-Video cables are fairly inexpensive compared to component or digital connector cables.
The mini-DIN pins, being weak, sometimes bend. This can result in the loss of colour or other corruption (or loss) in the signal. A bent pin can be forced back into shape, but this carries the risk of the pin breaking off.
The cable should be made up with two twisted pairs (one for the luminance (pins 3/1) and one for the chrominance (pins 4/2)), with an overall screen connecting the shells. Preferably, the pitch of the twists should be different, as in a Cat 5 LAN cable. However, Cat 5 cable has solid core wires and, generally, no overall screen, so it is not suitable for this application. Alternatively, two separately screened cables with an overall screen may be used. This will significantly reduce crosstalk between each signal pair. Use of ordinary or unscreened cables causes impedance mismatches, which will degrade the picture.
Before the mini-DIN plug became standard, S-Video signals were often carried through different types of connectors. For example, the Commodore 64 home computer of the 1980s, one of the first widely available devices to feature an S-Video output, used an eight-pin connector similar to the DIN connector on the computer end and a pair of phono plugs on the monitor end. (Also available via third-party vendors was an eight-pin DIN-to-4-pin mini-DIN to connect the Commodore directly to a television.) The S-Video connector is the most common video-out connector on older laptop computers; however, many devices with S-Video outputs also have composite outputs.
The Atari 800 home computer featured S-Video outputs in 1979 (three years before the Commodore 64), via a five-pin DIN plug.
Both S-Video and audio (mono or stereo) signals can be transferred through SCART connections as well. However, it is not part of the original SCART standard, so many SCART-compatible devices do not support it for this reason. Also, S-Video and RGB are mutually exclusive through SCART, due to S-Video using some of the pins allocated for RGB. Most SCART-equipped televisions and VCRs (and almost all of the older ones) do not support S-Video, resulting in a monochrome picture if such a connection is attempted, as only the luminance signal portion is usable. A monochrome picture could also be a sign of incompatible colour encoding: for example, NTSC material viewed through a PAL-only device.
Another incompatibility (due to S-Video not being part of the original SCART standard) is when connecting a SCART output device such as a cable TV box to a TV with a mini-DIN S-Video input. In many cases when this connection is made, the result will be a predominantly black-and-white picture, with most of the colour (chrominance signal) washed out. An example of this is when connecting the SCART output of a FOXTEL Digital Box (Australia) to a mini-DIN S-Video input of a TV. An impedance mismatch between the SCART and mini-DIN interfaces causes the signal levels to be reduced at the TV end, resulting in a poor picture. This problem can be overcome by terminating the chrominance line of the SCART plug with a 75-ohm resistor, correcting the mismatch. Many high-end sets do support this connection, however (without the termination), due to their inputs having a larger dynamic range.
At least some Fujitsu laptops (S-7020, S-7110) use so-called mini S-Video connector  for TV-Out. This mini S-Video connector is actually a 3.5mm TRS connector where tip and ring carry Y/C, both using the sleeve as ground. Such a mini S-Video is rare, and it is very difficult to obtain a proprietary cable for it.
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